In grappling with (zápasit) the subject of motivation in the foreign language classroom, we will eschew (vyvarovat se) a discussion of its various types, as they have been researched and talked about to death.
In this paper, we will briefly examine a variety of techniques, strategies and macrostrategies which teachers can employ in order to motivate their students.
As Dornyei (2001: 116) notes, ‘teacher skills in motivating learners should be seen as central to teaching effectiveness'.
Good and Brophy (1994: 212) hold that these approaches have been influenced by two contradictory views:
Dornyei (2001: 119) believes that ‘the spectrum of other potentially more effective motivational strategies is so broad that it is hard to imagine that none of them would work'.
As Manning points out, "it is comparatively easy for us to repress or avoid the existence of individual differences
As suggested by Steinberg and Morris (2001),
Ellsworth suggests that
Kemp, et al suggest that in many learning situations...
These and other advocates seem to agree that the independent learner is one who is more involved and active within the learning process.
He describes the lecture as "an efficient way of imparting information in a scheduled way
Knowles proposes that a good lecturer is one who gets to know his/her students
Knowles believes there is convincing evidence
While Cross (1976) reminds us ... Ellsworth (1995) points out that
Ellsworth has found, for example, that
Maslow contends that (tvrdí)
Pitt (1996) has identified ten instructional strategies
Maslow posited a hierarchy of human needs (postulovat)
Knowles (1991) supports the use of contract learning as an instructional strategy
Broadwell admits that the lecture format assumes the educator to be the expert
Ellsworth states that students must "see the connection between what is being taught (the content) and the vehicles (methods and media) for that teaching"
For Alison (1993), a key element is to establish a relationship of mutual trust and respect with the learners, by means of talking with them on a personal level.
This mutual trust could lead to enthusiasm.
Take one's cue from – napodobit
According to Chambers (1999: 37), ‘[i]f the teacher is to motivate pupils to learn, then relevance has to be the red thread permeating (prostupovat) activities'.
Many educationists and researchers (Benson, 2000; Little, 1991) argue that taking charge of (jmout se) one's learning, that is (to je), becoming an autonomous learner, can prove beneficial to (příznivý) learning.
Good and Brophy (1994: 228) note that ‘the simplest way to ensure that people value what they are doing is to maximise their free choice and autonomy'—a sentiment (pohled názor) shared by Ushioda (1997: 41), who remarks that ‘[s]elf-motivation is a question of thinking effectively and meaningfully about learning experience and learning goals. It is a question of applying positive thought patterns and belief structures so as to optimise (co nejlépe využít) and sustain (podporovat, posílit) one's involvement in learning'.
Dornyei (2001: 134) presents three areas of such strategies:
Promoting attributions to effort rather than to ability
Providing motivational feedback
Increasing learner satisfaction and the question of rewards and grades.
Thus, our main goal is to familiarise any putative "practitioners” with a set of techniques and strategies(henceforward, "motivational strategies”) for motivating foreign language students.
Prior to (před) presenting some of these motivational strategies, it would be of relevance to say a few things about the teacher / learner relationship.
In view of this three-fold paradigm, it is of importance to concern ourselves with the fostering of learner motivation, as it is considered to be the most effective and proactive, so to speak (abych tak řekl), power relationship.
In view ofmotivational strategies
In view of the factthat (vzhledem k)
As implied earlier, this...
Accordingly, the field of adolescence has become the exemplar within the broader study of human development
Puberty entails (mít za následek) definitional ambiguity regarding the onset and offset of puberty
A discussion of motivation and motivational strategies would not be complete without a consideration of group processes, inasmuch (pakliže form.) as there is usually a group of people that we as teachers are called on to motivate.
underachievement norms in the classroom are considered to be basic hindrances to effective teaching and learning.
As we have already said,skill in motivating students to learn is of paramount (zásadní) importance.
Rewards and punishments may be a mainstay (hlavní část, pilíř) of the teaching-learning process, but they are not the only tools in teachers' arsenal.
The following taxonomy, around which our main discussion will revolve, is based on the process-oriented model by Dornyei and Otto (1998).
The key units in this taxonomy are as follows:
Appropriate teacher behaviour and good teacher-studentrapport (porozumění, dobrý vzath)
Whatever is done by a teacher has a motivational, formative, influence on students.
In other words, teacher behaviour is a powerful ‘motivational tool' (Dornyei, 2001: 120).
Teacher influences are manifold (rozměnitý), ranging from the rapport with the students to teacher behaviours which "prevail upon” and / or "attract” students to engage in tasks.
It stands to reason (je jasné, že) that a tense classroom climate can undermine learning and demotivate learners
On the other hand, learner motivation will reach its peak in a safe classroom climate in which students can express their opinions and feel that they do notrun the riskof being ridiculed.
Many students do their homework and engage in all sorts of learning activities, even when a subject is not very interesting. Obviously, these students share the belief of the curriculum makers that what they are being taught will come in handy (přijít vhod).
In order to inspire learners to concern themselves with (zabývat se ) most learning activities, we should find out their goals and the topics they want to learn, and try to incorporate them into the curriculum.
It is widely acknowledged that learner beliefs about how much progress to expect, and at what pace, can, and do, lead to disappointment.
Therefore, it is important to help learners get rid of their preconceived notions (předsudky) that are likely to hinder their attainment (úspěch, dosažení cíle).
To this end (za tímto účelem), learners need to develop an understanding of the nature of second language learning, and should be cognisant of (být si vědom) the fact that the mastery of L2 can be achieved in different ways, using a diversity of strategies, and a key factor is for learners to discover for themselves the optimal methods and techniques.
Unless motivation is sustained and protected when action has commenced, the natural tendency to get tired or bored of the task and succumb to (podlehnout) any attractive distractions will result in (mít za následek) demotivation. Therefore, there should be a motivational repertoire including several motivation maintenance strategies.
Let us have a look at two of them: a) increasing the learners' self-confidence; and b) creating learner autonomy.
There are five approaches that purport (tvrdit, prohlašovat, údajně) to help to this end (Dornyei, 2001: 130):
Teachers can foster (podporovat) the belief that competence is a changeable aspect of development
Favourable self-conceptions of L2 competence can be promoted (podpořit) by providing regular experiences of success
Everyone is more interested in a task if they feel that they make a contribution
A small personal word of encouragement is sufficient
Teachers can reduce classroom anxiety by making the learning context less stressful
This assumption (domněnka) is premised on humanistic psychology, namely (jmenovitě) that ‘the only kind of learning which significantly affects behaviour is self-discovered, self-appropriated learning'
Benson (2000) distinguishes between five types of practice fostering the development of autonomy:
Research has shown that the way learners feel about their accomplishments and the amount of satisfaction they experience after task completion will determine how teachers approach and tackle subsequent (následující) learning tasks. By employing appropriate strategies, the latter can help learners to evaluate themselves in a positive light, encouraging them to take credit for (přisvojit si) their advances.
The feeling of satisfaction is a significant factor in reinforcing (podpořit, posílit) achievement behaviour, which renders (poskytnout) satisfaction a major component of motivation.
Grades focus on performance outcomes, rather than on the process of learning itself.
Consequently,(Tudíž) ‘many students are grade driven, not to say (ne-li dokonce), "grade grubbing,” and this preoccupation begins surprisingly early in life' (Covington, 1999: 127).
There is also a wide assortment (škála) of macrostrategies used to foster motivation, but we will not dwell on them (see Dornyei, 2001: 137-140 for more details).
Nevertheless, these teachers seem to lose sight of (pustit ze zřetele) the fact that
Learning a foreign language is different to learning other subjects. Therefore, language teaching should take account of a variety of factors that are likely to promote, or even militate against, success. Language is part of one's identity and is used to convey this identity to others.
As a result, foreign language learning has a significant impact on the social being of the learner, since it involves the adoption of new social and cultural behaviours and ways of thinking.
One of the most salient (nejvýznamější, význačný) affective issues is the influence of teachers' expectations on pupils' attitudes towards learning, since evidence shows that teacher expectancies are correlated (suviset) with student achievement (Dusek and Joseph, 1983).
Strictly speaking (properly speaking, to be precise), there is no such thing as 'motivation'.
Another important point is that there is
according to the foregoing (podle právě zmíněného),
It has been pointed out above several times that our needs usually emerge only when more prepotent needs have been gratified.
A pivotal (klíčový, ústřední) goal of ...
a significant motivarional subsystem, which is very much in line with (v souladu) the increasing importance
As Sllrcidecker and Freeman (1999:9) succinctly (stručně) put it,
It sheds light on (objasňují)
Handbook included information pertinent to (související s) normative development
In general, adolescence from ....
Overall, there is some evidence ...
A key factor in determining whether or not parents have a positive effect in helping their adolescents build a healthy ego identity is the warmth, concern, and interest they show them.
There is a correlation between (vzájemná souvislost) self-concept and achievement.
Rogers pictures the end point of personality development as a basic congruence between (shoda) a and b ...
Piaget goes on to emphasize that:
Piaget also refers to to the importance of adolescent work in the community.
Elkind discusses who he terms personal fable
Belongingness needs allude to (odkazovat na) an individual's desire to be accepted
in essence, ... (v podstatě)
the steady growth of personality, i.e., (to jest) increased synergy...
The classroom implications of this work are straightforward
When given a choice, high-need achievers seek out moderately challenging tasks because they offer an optimal balance between challenge and expected success.
By contrast, individuals with a low need for achievement avoid such tasks because their fear of failure greatly outweighs their expectation of success, and they therefore anticipate feelings of shame.
When faced with a choice, they typically opt either for (vybrat si) relatively easy tasks because the probability of success is high or rather difficult tasks because there is no shame in failing to achieve a lofty goal.
He elaborates on (dále rozvést) this basic principle by proposing a five-level hierarchy of needs.
Basically (v podstatě), self-actualization refers to the need for self-fulfillment -
the importance of perception, along with (spolu s) the importance
In a nutshell, .... (v kostce)
Motivation needs to be elicited (vyvolaný) rather than established.
The research in the previous section implies (naznačovat) that for students to be able to ....
What is particularly essential is that students be in instructional environments that provide genuine caring and support from teachers, classmates ....
Positive perceptions fuel (podpořit, podnítit) promising outcomes
to unleash (rozpoutat, spustit) the full potential of students.
It is critical that teachers identify children...
all of the aforementioned (již dříve uvedený) pubertal processes are influnced by an....
Hormonal changes are also believed to account for (objasňovat, způsovit) emotional functioning
early adolescence - relative to (oporit, vzhledem k, v porovnání s) midadolescence and beyond - as a period when parents ...
piecemeal approach (nesystematický) or corrections
implement strategies to enhance your relationship.
design and organise tasks
In this respect, – v totmto ohledu
Conversely, ... - naopak
He presents an argument that ...
And crucially, there was a recognition that ...
Significantly, ... - a co je důležité
— used to say that something is important or meaningful : Significantly, William broke with family tradition and decided not to name his newborn son "William.”
That, indeed, would be an exciting prospect.
This first difficulty lies in the fact that the terms mentoring and coaching are used interchangeably.
requires much more discussion, and warrants (zasluhovat, vyžadovat) a section of its own.
Clearly, a new approach is needed. = A new approach is clearly needed. [=it is clear that a new approach is needed]
They have to make a decision soon. Therein lies (v tom tkví) the problem. [=that is why there is a problem] If they act too quickly, they run the risk of choosing the wrong plan.
In taking a holistic view (díváme-li se na to celkově), a coach can encourage young people to view learning as part of life,
So far I've been trying to articulate how the features (formuloívat)
they will be evident in our behaviour and the way we conduct our lives.
to check they are consistent with our behaviour. (být v souladu)
there's a mismatch between - je nesoulad mezi
To start with ... - na začátek ...
Even so, ... - i tak, stejně však, přesto
— used to introduce a statement that is somehow different from what has just been said
Applied to coaching, having a belief about human uniqueness helps us
From what we now know about the brain, ...
It is important to be aware of ...
the particular approach warrantsconsideration before moving to examine the detail...
Further, he should be here by any minute. - Navíc
in this respect - po této stránce, v tomto ohledu
it is important to recognise that ...
As Carol has commented:
with respect to / in respect of the young person, the process... (Co se týče ...)
similarly, ... podobně ...
it also needs to be an approach ....
and in addition to the intellectual and congitive domain, we need to be strong in emotional intelligence...
as well as giving..., creating comfort also refers...
Peter makes a similar point...
This is a concept that lies at the heart of Albert Bandura's work in psychology, where he describes it as:
The core of the theory is that people's level of motivation, emotional state and actions are based more on what they believe than on reality.
the theory addresses the origins of ...
for our purposes ... pro naše potřeby...
So there's a gender factor that also needs to be taken account of in relation to learning readiness.
An additional factor is that ...
Mike Hughes (2006: 139) expresses it in simple terms:
Needless to say, ...